My first day on the grounds crew at Quaker Ridge Golf Club in Scarsdale, NY I was riding around in a golf cart with the superintendent. I don't remember if the course closed that day, but it was raining really hard. We had full rain gear on, but I was soaked through my pants.
Since it was my first my first day we got to talking about my interests in architecture and why I wanted to spend some time on his crew. He suggested a few books, and then told me the 2 most important things on a golf course. "Number one," he said "is drainage. And number two, is drainage."
Basic Stone Drain - What I'm calling the slight variation on a French drain, used normally in lateral patterns to collect ground a surface water. Found on virtually all tees, fairways, greens and bunkers, they use gravity to carry water downhill to a low area on the golf course. Depending on existing sub-soils, variations of pipe size, trench depth, width and angle, stone type, and finish material are required.
Pea Gravel - Small rounded stones that provide easy passage of water through the small air-pockets surrounding them. Direct water to specified area by providing a path of least resistance for ground and surface water towards a desired low spot. Protects against roots and other particles that clog pipes.
Perforated Pipe - Commonly black and corrugated. Helps move water through the gravel, stone or sand, at a faster rate.
Mix / Topsoil - A well draining material that will be compacted to finish grade and grassed over. Mix is more expensive but is preferred because the sand base will drain better than a soil. Even compaction is a must in order to properly tie into to grade so the drain will not settle into a hollow over time.